“封鎖lockdown”成爲《柯林斯詞典》2020年度詞彙

“封鎖lockdown”成爲《柯林斯詞典》2020年度詞彙

《柯林斯詞典》宣佈“封鎖”(lockdown)一詞成爲2020年度詞彙。同時入選年度十大詞彙的還有冠狀病毒、社交隔離、強制休假、梅根脫離王室、吃播等。

Lockdown, the noun that has come to define so many lives across the world in 2020, has been named word of the year by Collins Dictionary.

2020年改變了太多人生活的“封鎖”被選爲《柯林斯詞典》的年度詞彙。

Lockdown is defined by Collins as “the imposition of stringent restrictions on travel, social interaction, and access to public spaces”, and its usage has boomed over the last year. The 4.5bn-word Collins Corpus, which contains written material from websites, books and newspapers, as well as spoken material from radio, television and conversations, registered a 6,000% increase in its usage. In 2019, there were 4,000 recorded instances of lockdown being used. In 2020, this had soared to more than a quarter of a million.

《柯林斯詞典》將“封鎖”定義爲“對旅行、社交互動和公共空間出入實施嚴格限制”,該詞的使用量在過去一年間飆升。擁有45億個詞的柯林斯語料庫的記錄顯示,“封鎖”的使用量增加了6000%。柯林斯語料庫的素材來自網站、書籍、報紙等書面材料以及廣播、電視和談話的口語材料。2019年,語料庫記載了4000個使用“封鎖”的例子。2020年,使用“封鎖”一詞的例子暴增至逾25萬個。

“Language is a reflection of the world around us and 2020 has been dominated by the global pandemic,” says Collins language content consultant Helen Newstead. “We have chosen lockdown as our word of the year because it encapsulates the shared experience of billions of people who have had to restrict their daily lives in order to contain the virus. Lockdown has affected the way we work, study, shop, and socialise. With many countries entering a second lockdown, it is not a word of the year to celebrate but it is, perhaps, one that sums up the year for most of the world.”

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《柯林斯詞典》的語言內容顧問海倫·紐斯特德說:“語言反映了我們周邊的世界,2020年是被全球疫情主宰的一年。我們選擇‘封鎖’作爲今年的年度詞彙,因爲它概括了數十億人被迫限制日常生活以防控病毒蔓延的共同經歷。封鎖影響了我們工作、學習、購物和社交的方式。如今許多國家都進入了第二輪封鎖,這不是一個值得慶賀的年度詞彙,但也許這個詞能概括世界上大多數人的這一年。”

Other pandemic-related words such as coronavirus, social distancing, self-isolate and furlough were on the dictionary’s list of the top 10 words. So was the term key worker. According to Collins, key worker saw a 60-fold increase in usage over the last year, which reflects “the importance attributed this year to professions considered to be essential to society”.

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冠狀病毒、社交隔離、自我隔離和強制休假等其他疫情相關詞彙也入選了《柯林斯詞典》的年度十大詞彙。同樣入選的還有關鍵崗位工作人員。據《柯林斯詞典》介紹,關鍵崗位工作人員的使用量在過去一年增加了60倍,反映出“今年對社會必不可少的職業的重視”。

The abbreviation BLM, for Black Lives Matter, also made the shortlist. Defined by Collins as “a movement that campaigns against racially motivated violence and oppression”, it registered a 581% increase in usage.

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“黑人的命也是命”的縮寫BLM也躋身年度十大詞彙。 《柯林斯詞典》將BLM定義爲“反對種族暴力和壓迫的運動”,數據顯示,該詞的使用量增加了581%。

Previous words of the year for Collins include climate strike in 2019, single-use in 2018, fake news in 2017, and Brexit in 2016. This year the top 10 included the word Megxit, defined as “the withdrawal of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex from royal duties, announced in January 2020”. Collins said the informal noun, modelled on Brexit, showed “just how firmly established that word now is in our lexicon”.

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《柯林斯詞典》先前的年度詞彙包括2019年的“氣候罷工”、2018年的“一次性使用”、2017年的“假新聞”和2016年的“英國脫歐”。今年的年度十大詞彙還包括“梅根脫離王室”,該詞被定義爲“薩塞克斯公爵與公爵夫人2020年1月宣佈退出王室職務”。《柯林斯詞典》表示,這個仿照“英國脫歐”造出的非正式名詞顯示出“英國脫歐一詞在英國詞彙中的地位是多麼穩固”。

來看看《柯林斯詞典》年度十大詞彙的權威定義:

coronavirus (noun): any one of a group of RNA-containing viruses that can cause infectious illnesses of the respiratory tract, including COVID-19. So called because of their crown-like appearance in electron micrographs.

冠狀病毒(名詞):任何導致呼吸道傳染病的RNA病毒,包括新冠病毒在內。之所以被稱爲冠狀是因爲這種病毒在電子顯微圖中看起來形似王冠。

furlough (noun): a temporary laying-off of employees, usually because there is insufficient work to occupy them; (verb) to lay off (staff) temporarily. From Dutch verlof, from ver (for) and lof (leave); related to Swedish förlof.

強制休假(名詞):員工被暫時解僱,通常是因爲現有的工作量不需要這麼多人手。也可作動詞使用,意思是暫時辭退員工。該詞源於荷蘭語中的verlof,ver相當於英語中的for,lof是休假的意思,和瑞典語中的förlof也有關聯。

key worker or keyworker (noun, Brit): an employee in any of a number of professions considered to be essential to the functioning of society, for example teachers, police officers, health workers, shop workers, etc.

關鍵崗位員工(英國名詞):對社會運行至關重要的若干職業的員工,比如教師、警察、醫護人員、商店店員等。

lockdown (noun): the imposition of stringent restrictions on travel, social interaction, and access to public spaces.


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封鎖(名詞):對旅行、社交互動和公共空間出入實施嚴格限制。

Megxit (noun, informal): the withdrawal of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex from royal duties, announced in January 2020. From Meg(han), Duchess of Sussex and (e)xit; influenced by Brexit.

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梅根退出王室(名詞,非正式):薩塞克斯公爵與公爵夫人於2020年1月宣佈退出王室職務。該詞受“英國脫歐”一詞的影響,由薩塞克斯公爵夫人梅根名字的頭三個字母和退出英語的後三個字母組成。

mukbang (noun, Korean): a video or webcast in which the host eats a large quantity of food for the entertainment of viewers. From meogneun (eating) and bangsong (broadcast).

吃飯直播(名詞,韓語):主播爲了娛樂觀衆而在視頻或網絡直播中吃進大量食物。“吃播”一詞由韓語meogneun(吃)和bangsong(播出)組合而成。

self-isolate (verb): to quarantine oneself if one has or suspects one has a contagious disease.

自我隔離(動詞):在某人確診或疑似有傳染病時自我隔離。


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social distancing (noun): the practice of maintaining a certain distance between oneself and other people in order to prevent infection with a disease. Also called: physical distancing.

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社交隔離(名詞):爲防止感染疾病而在自己和他人之間保持一定距離的做法。也可以用physical distancing來表達。

TikToker (noun): a person who regularly shares or appears in videos on TikTok.

抖友(名詞):經常分享或出現在抖音視頻中的人。